Tag Archives: Science

Can You Really Trust Health Journalism? Think Like A Scientist.

Newspapers often give completely contradictory health advice. It’s difficult enough to keep track of what is supposed to be healthy, without papers changing their minds the whole time. Unless you have training in Science or access to the original source material, you often must take a newspapers interpretation at face value. But this can often be wrong, and in some cases, very dangerous. How dangerous? Well, read on to find out how you can spot the sensational and separate the wheat from the chaff.

Health And Contradiction

One example of a newspaper that is often sensational in its reporting is The Daily Mail.  And, like any other news source, it has to keep up with new information, which may change within hours. In just a few examples, we see The Daily Mail appear to contradict itself on a variety of subjects.  “Aspirin causes cancer” but also “Aspirin prevents cancer”. They tell us “Beer causes cancer” but then “Beer prevents cancer”. Also “Coffee causes cancer”  except in those times when “Coffee prevents cancer”“Eggs cause cancer” but, you guessed it, “Eggs prevent cancer”. “Soya causes cancer” but also “Soya prevents cancer”. And if lifestyle advice rather than dietary advice is your thing, don’t worry, they’ve got you covered. “Stress causes cancer”  but, in an unexpected turn of events, also “Stress prevents cancer”.

If you were to go by this reporting, which in itself seems well sourced, would you be confident to have eggs on toast and a soy latte? Why such contradictory advice? What has gone wrong here? Is it the newspaper’s fault? Or is it more complicated than that?

Contradiction Is Natural in Science

Knowledge about a subject changes over time. We all remember adverts where doctors recommended cigarettes, but you’d struggle to find many nowadays claiming cigarettes aren’t harmful. And those that do require some education. But that’s only part of the story. To understand more about it, let’s look at how medical research gets published, and how newspapers access this research.

If you’re a researcher wanting to get your work published, you submit it to a professional journal. There’s a kind of pecking order of these, with the top ones being well known (Nature, The British Medical Journal, The Lancet etc). At the top of the journal food-chain, journal editors are able to employ lots of independent experts who can “peer-review” articles before they are published, checking that everything looks accurate. It’s the journal’s reputation on the line too. These journals make their money by being a trusted resource that people are keen to subscribe to and keep up to date with cutting-edge research. Because you often have to pay to access these articles, it’s less likely that the general public or the press have access to them.

Here lies a conundrum. The very nature of profit means that the public may have to rely on second-hand accounts.

A bit down the chain are the less big-name journals that provide articles free to access and make their money through advertising. These journals still peer-review articles and often play an important role in publishing articles that bigger journals might not take on, but are still important: for example articles about treatments that have been tried but don’t work.

Further down the food-chain are journals that rely on charging researchers to publish in them, just for the kudos of having their research published. The majority of these journals are honest, but a few are just money-making schemes, that will accept any article as their business depends on it. They will often actively go looking for researchers to submit articles to them. While they claim to be “peer-reviewed” often these articles aren’t.

So how do you distinguish between verified and peer-reviewed science, and what is just money-making? And how can you tell what you should believe in when there is so much out there?

The Wheat from the Chaff

One famous example of science shenanigans is David Mazieres and Eddie Kohler of New York University and the University of California, Los Angeles. They were contacted by a journal that sent hundreds of emails out to researchers, suggesting that they submit work to their journal. They wrote a paper called “Get Me Off Your F*****g Mailing List” as a joke. Surprisingly, their paper was “peer-reviewed” and accepted for publication by the impressively named “International Journal of Advanced Computer Technology”

Now, that’s an extreme case, but it shows that we need to be cautious about some of these medical articles that are the easiest for newspapers to access. Just because something has been published in a “journal” doesn’t mean it’s good research, and expert peer-review is essential. Unfortunately, it’s often the very articles that are less rigorously checked that are easiest to access by newspapers.

Why is this a problem? Well, proper research is often really difficult to do, but misinterpreting results is easy. As any statistician worth their salt will tell you, 86.7% of statistics are made up. So if an article hasn’t been “peer-reviewed”, you’re going to have to review it yourself. Luckily, there are certain clues in good research that help you think like a Scientist.

Think like a Scientist

In Science, nothing is confirmed. Only refuted, and conclusions drawn in very narrow margins. Researchers have to be careful that their findings are “statistically significant”, and they use various ways to do this. They often quote a factor in their articles called a “p value” which is a measure of how likely it is the results they found are due to chance. For example, a p-value of 0.05 suggests that there’s only a 5 in 100 chance that the results of the research are just due to chance. That sounds impressive, right? Well, yeah, but if your research is looking at 100 things that might cause cancer, 5 things might show up as positive just by chance.

This is incredibly common, and a natural limitation of science. It is akin to ‘we are confident of this relationship in most cases, but cannot account for all.’

Also, you need to be sure that the things you are looking at really are the cause, and aren’t just “confounding factors” meaning that the thing you are looking at isn’t really the cause, but is associated with something that is. Let’s say you’re looking at what causes obesity, and you find that Diet drinks are linked to it. It might be that they really are – but it’s unlikely considering the number of calories in them is often zero. So a simple confounding factor is that the already overweight may drink more diet drinks to try and cut down. Correlation does not imply causation.

Erm, So Now What?

So I should just ignore everything I read right? Well, no. Research is essential to better understand the world we live in, but the bottom line is we shouldn’t just trust something because it’s been published in a journal with an impressive name, and then reported on in a newspaper. The Daily Mail has an excellent health writer, but without the opportunity to review the work in the context of everything else you cannot make a truly informed choice.

Furthermore, often the relationship between a variable (coffee) and an outcome (stress) is not something simple, linear and dose-related. You can have too much or too little. So if you claim ‘Coffee causes stress’ and ‘Coffee helps you destress’ you may be right, but about different doses, lifestyles and context.

Check the sources, ask yourself a few simple questions about it, and if you’re interested look into it more. If you see something that doesn’t make sense, ask about it, write a comment below the article, because unless we highlight bad reporting of poor research, things are never going to change. Also, there are some very good sources out there for health, such as ‘Cochrane‘ which creates reliable information about health research by reviewing all the data at regular intervals.

But nothing is better, or safer, than seeing your GP. So if you are concerned about your health, or the impact of changing diet, behaviour or medication, consult with your local provider before hand.

So, with that in mind, cast a keener eye on the headlines. And if you want to know a bit more about how to approach an article critically, check out our Big 5 questions. And, as always, help us out by sharing our work.

What’s Next?

  • Learn more about why learning to learn may help you.
  • Follow Ben on Twitter so you never miss an article from drbenjanaway.com
  • Give this a share if you found it interesting.
  • Let me know what you think in the comments below or on social media.

The opinions expressed in this article are those of Dr Rod Kelly and Dr Janaway alone and may not represent those of their affiliates. Original article was written by Dr Kelly and edited for publication by Dr Janaway. If you wish to discuss the article, please contact us. Image courtesy of Jon S. No alteration was made to the image except resizing to fit banner (640x378p.) We pass on our thanks to the creator of the Image.

If you have concerns about your health, always consult a Physician. 

 

What Stephen Hawking Can Teach Us. Lessons From A Great Man.

To eulogise Professor Hawking is not in my remit, I knew him too little and there are those much better deserving and placed of that honour. To obituarise him is also beyond my scope, as I possess neither the gravitas or right to do so. But to celebrate him, and all that he has achieved through his inexhaustible pursuit of knowledge, that is something that we  all can do. Stephen was a pioneer, philanthropist, physicist and inspiration, and it is only right that he be celebrated.

For Stephen. 1942-2018. 

Somewhere in Cambridge University, likely dog-eared and covered in dust, lies a paper written over 50 years ago.  Within its pages, between the rather impenetrable prose, lies a set of formidable equations. And these equations carefully examine the nature of our universe, in particular the properties of its expansion with relation to ‘singularities.

It may seem odd that thin wood and scattered ink can capture such dramatic notions, but I assure you it can. And with this first foray into the laws of the Universe, the late Stephen Hawking laid strong foundations for a future we can all dream of.

”Closed in a room, my imagination becomes the universe, and the rest of the world is missing out.” – Criss Jami

An Expanding Universe

In 1929 Edwin Hubble used an analysis of light wavelength change to demonstrate the expansion of the Universe. Each galaxy is rushing away from one and another, in a Universe oft described as ‘Infinite but bounded.’ This is a confusing concept for most (including myself,) and asks more questions than it answers. Will it expand forever (very possibly,) can we ever transverse all of it (disappointingly unlikely,) and why does it behave as it does?

The same questions plagued a young doctoral candidate called Stephen Hawking, who set about to answer them. Having graduated from Oxford University with a degree in Physics, Stephen was ready to prove his worth. His 1965 paper, titled ‘Properties of Expanding Universes’ (note the pluralisation of Universe,) along with many others of his own,  answered seminal questions that propelled this young man into infamy, and we still use his work today.

In his work on ‘singularities‘ (where matter becomes incredibly densely packed,) he investigated the nature of universal expansion, black holes and other phenomena. Alongside mathematician Roger Penrose, Hawking showed mathematical proof for the Big Bang, modelled the nature of Black Holes and even went as far to examine what happens to information devoured by such holes as they die.

In short, Stephen probed the darkest centres of reality and found light. And because of this, modern days physicists can begin to answer even more of the very questions that define our existence.

Stephen and the Universe

‘One, remember to look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Two, never give up work. Work gives you meaning and purpose and life is empty without it. Three, if you are lucky enough to find love, remember it is there and don’t throw it away – Professor Hawking

The young hands responsible for this work belonged to a brilliant mind, but one fraught with worry. An exceptional intelligence, Stephen Hawking’s quest for knowledge found little hindrance in the solemnity of disease. When diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (a diagnosis oft questioned,) he fell into a depression which marred his studies. But then the disease failed to progress as expected, Stephen found a new lease of life.

It is something wonderful that Stephens spirit was not crushed by his physical limitations. And even as he lost the use of his body, his mind became freer to set itself amongst the stars. Not only has he answered some of the greatest questions known to man, but propelled countless young minds outwards into the same abyss he explored. It is poetic that even confined physically, he explored more of space and time than many of us ever will.

With his passing today humanity can all feel a collective loss. All great men (and women,) must die, but their deeds are remembered in infamy. Although it is likely, and shamefully so, that many will have never heard his name, their descendants will use his work to transverse the stars, find new homes and spread humanity to the farthest reaches.  And for me at least, opening the pages of his books will always feel like home.

In his very equations are his legacy, the deepest paint on the extraordinary canvas that was a challenging and incredible story. Stephen showed us that the Universe is ours for the taking, and that you can do it from a wheelchair. He showed us that passion and spirit can conquer the greatest odds, and that generosity and determination can build great things.

Goodbye Stephen. And thank you.

What’s Next?

  • Read Stephen Hawkins ‘A Brief History of Time’
  • Learn more about ‘black holes’
  • Go do something wonderful.

The opinions above are those of Dr Janaway alone. You may note that this page still has ads on it, and all proceeds from this post will go to charities associated with Motor Neurone Disease. I hope you find this acceptable. Image courtesy of Lwp Kommunikáció

Feel Like You Are Blogging Into A Canyon? You Aren’t Alone. What It Really Feels Like To Begin A Blog.

So you have done the research. Found your niche. Decided that this is about ‘passion’ and not profit. Perhaps you have followed a few of the leaders in your field, emailed a few journals and gone as far as to decide a timetable. You have searched through web builders, domains and paid the fees. Now its time to put pen to paper (or fingers to keyboard..) So what can you expect?

A damn roller coaster.

Prepare To Be Inspired

Wading into the #blogosphere can be intimidating. Giants like ‘The Minimalists‘ can make you feel very small, and its likely your first posts have garnered little attention. But actually, that’s quite inspiring. Some sites say don’t sweat the analytics too early, but I don’t agree. From day one you can begin to see what works and what doesn’t, who responds, what they think and how it feels.

My first post (well that’s a lie, but I restarted..) was ‘The Big 5 Questions that could re-invent democracy‘, something very well received. It was topical, touched on several interesting discussion points and received a fair amount of discussion. And that was fascinating. Even from the comments on Twitter, I gained new ideas for the next one. Not only did I gain feedback, I gained direction.

Even the least viewed articles can teach you something. First, you can examine your work, see if there was something that didn’t quite click. Was the narrative off, did you make the reader feel engaged? Was the subject interesting, or made interesting? Could you have used images? You now have a chance to try new things, play around and invent, and that’s pretty good fun.

Once in a while someone famous will comment, share or like what you write. And no matter how balanced you are, this is always awesome. This is a ‘win’, no doubt about it. And now you, and your blog, may have gained some serious attention.

Inspiration can come from anywhere, all you have to do is open your eyes and broaden your mind.

Prepare To Feel Frustrated

Sometimes you may hit a wall. What can I write next? Why isn’t this article being shared? Well the answers may not be obvious, and a lot of the time, it comes down to something you can change. I wondered why some of what I felt were my best received little attention, and the worst much more? Well that’s part of the experience, and frustration is a natural reaction. Its hard to put yourself out there.

They say the best thing to grow a blog is consistency. People like comfort, and develop habits. Perhaps you read the same blog week in week out, or are subscribed to the same Youtuber. You feel amiss when they miss an upload, and comforted when they have a new post. There is a scientific reason for this, called ‘dopamine.’ Its natures pleasure hormone, and once it reacts to a situation, it recognises it and does it again and again.

By being consistent, you can begin to develop a readership that trusts you, and also find pleasure in writing again and again.

Prepare To Feel Creative

In my first few posts I tried a few different things. Some articles were more scientific, others more polemic. One approached comedic (although I’m definitely not funny.) A blog allows you to flex your creative muscles. So why not try it? Write a poem, short story, an opinion piece or a news article. Mess around with the site itself, change its design, see what works for you and your readers.

‘Create, create, create. You never know what might be the key.’

Prepare To Feel Nervous

Putting yourself out there is nerve-wracking. As I talked about in my article on Anxiety, sometimes notoriety can be scary. These are your words, your opinions and your message. And people you have never met are going to be reading them, judging and commenting. Okay, you get the odd bad review, but remember there is no such thing as bad publicity. And its an opportunity to learn, improve, create and try new things.

Take the emotions in your stride, and keep moving forward.

This is just a little insight into what this whole crazy process feels like. But what do you think? What have you learned that you could teach others? Let me know in the comments and don’t forget to subscribe, follow and share.

What Next?

  • Follow Ben on Twitter so you never miss an article
  • Write a list of 10 possible #blog topics
  • Review your analytics!

The opinions above represent those of Dr Janaway alone and not necessarily those of his affiliates.  If you have any ideas for articles, or would like to write with me, let me know on Twitter or drop me an email. Image courtesy of Josh Henderson

Are You Eating? Good! But Did You Know You Are Violating Cosmic Law?

First there was the Big Bang. Then, a few years later, there is the Big Mac. The future of our Universe is much like that of a Big Mac; to eventually decompose to nothingness. But you, at least for a while, can prevent that using the very energy a Big Mac delivers. How? Well within physics, the study of how matter works, you are actually opposing the Universe every time you take a bite.

Entropy and the End of the Universe

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A Broken Cup will never rebuild itself…

Imagine dropping a cup of tea (or coffee, whiskey, whatever you want.) First that cup will shatter, and its contents spread out to fill as much space as it can. This may just seem natural to you, but its actually a process. One of the laws of nature is that nature is lazy, and will often follow the path of least resistance. This is why water flows from high to low, and wind travels from high pressure to low pressure.

What happens is very simple. If a substance can drop to a lower energy state, it will. So to rebuild your tea cup you must use energy, kinetic energy from your hands, electrical energy in your brain and chemical energy in the glue. To refill it you must use electricity to boil water and kinetic energy to stir the tea and add sugar and milk. By re-dropping the broken cup you will never rebuild it.

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The Universe will eventually break down to almost nothing.

The universe has a tendency to disorder called Entropy. And that means over time all substances (be they huge planets or tiny atoms,) will eventually decompose into their constituent parts. This, theoretically, is one of the possible ends of the Universe. It is called ‘Heat Death‘, and will leave all we know as a dark, cold place. And it will happen to all of us (if we survive that long!)

How we Fight Entropy

Accepting that all structures will break down, how do we, a complex biological structure, prevent our own demise? Well, first we must understand something, pretty much everything in us is dead. We are formed of countless atoms, arranged in complex ways to perform different functions. Our looks, behaviours, lifespans and quirks are all based on evolution, which as acted on molecules for time immemorial.

The life bit is something quite special, and we still don’t know quite what it means. But all those dead bits need energy to become alive.

Biological structures need energy to work. Even as you read this you are using energy. Your heart is beating, your brain ‘thinking’ and your cells performing trillions of tiny operations to keep you alive. Its all wonderful, but needs energy to work. Without it, everything would fail, and break apart. When we die we follow the ultimate path of the Universe, to decompose and become molecules and eventually atoms ourselves.

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Kittens, like us, use energy to stay together.

Remember the Lion King, its a little like that, but without the Gazelles (for most of us!) By consuming energy we prevent our death, and in the terms of physics, entropy. We hold ourselves together at a molecular and biological level. By simply eating we defy the universe, and with it, keep ourselves alive.

So next time you have a cup of tea, remember that!

What Next?

  • Follow Ben on Twitter so you never miss an article
  • Tell me what you think in the comments or on Twitter
  • Read up on Entropy and the other possible ends of the Universe

The opinions above represent those of Dr Janaway alone and not necessarily those of his affiliates. I have relied heavily on the great work of Kurzgesagt, so give them a visit! If you have any ideas for articles, or would like to write with me, let me know on Twitter or drop me an email.

Images: 

Joanna Bourne

John Smith

Fuzzy Gerdes

Nvalnlo

 

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